Rice is one of the most edible food items in the southern and northern parts of India. Rice belongs to the grass family of Graminae, is a cereal grain and the native to the deltas of Asian rivers. Generally, the rice plant grows from 2 to 6 feet with round & pointed leaves. The edible seeds are borne in the dense head on separate stalks. For instance, rice is one of the most cultivated crops in Asian countries and a staple diet of the major part of India.
India comes at second position, followed by China which is at first place in rice cultivation and consumption. The rice cultivation process may differ significantly in various regions. In countries like India, traditional hand methods of cultivation are still practised. Whereas, modern rice farming methods are integrated in most of the countries, which reduce the labour and cost of cultivation. Rice is generally used to produce rice bran oil from its husk. Across India, there are many varieties of rice are cultivated. Just the basic knowledge and irrigation facility, rice farming would be a highly profitable business in India. In today’s blog, we will study about the process of rice farming in India. Let’s start this blog.
Common Name of Rice in India
Following are the local names of rice, which varies from different languages in India.
- Hindi – Chawal
- Telugu – Biyyamu
- Tamil – Pacharisi
- Malayalam – Pachauri
- Kannada – Akki
- Bengali – Chaal
- Marathi – Taandul
- Konkani – Thando
- Oriya – Chaula
- Punjabi – Chawal
- Gujarati – Chawal
Health and Nutrient Benefits of Rice
- Rice is an excellent source of energy, a cholesterol free food.
- This helps in maintaining the blood pressure of the body.
- It May helps in the prevention of cancer, chronic constipation and other skin related problems.
- However, rice bran oil supports cardiovascular health.
- Rice is enriched with vitamin D, calcium, fibre, iron and thiamine.
Climate Requirement for Rice Cultivation
Rice can be easily grown under various climatic conditions of altitude. The cultivation of rice can be as high as 3000 m. For optimum result, rice crop requires hot and humid climatic condition. Rice crop is most suited for the region where abundant water supply, high humid and prolonged sunshine is available. For instance, the ideal temperature required throughout the life period of the crop ranges from 20*C – 40*C. However, the rice crop can also tolerate the maximum temperature up to 42*C.
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Soil Requirement in Rice Cultivation
The cultivation of rice can be done on wide varieties of soil, including silts, loams, and gravels. Rice can also tolerate acidic as well as alkaline soils. However, deep fertile clayey or loamy soil, which can easily be puddled into the mud and develop cracks on drying conditions, are the best for growing rice crop.
Seed Selection in Rice Cultivation
The selection of seed is one of the most important parts for every farming to get the proper crop yield. It is generally advisable to select superior quality seeds to raise healthy seedlings.
- The farmer should select the seed should be clean and free from the mixture of other seeds.
- Seeds should be fully mature, well developed and plump in size.
- Farmers are advised to select the seeds which are free from signs of age or inadequate storage.
- The seed must have a high germinating capacity for getting higher yields.
Land Preparation in Rice Cultivation
The land preparation followed in rice cultivation is the dry or semi-dry and wet system.
- Dry or Semi-Dry System
In this system, the rice field should have good tilth that can be achieved by giving a couple of ploughing and harrowing. For the best optimum results, Kubota tractor is the best as they are much powerful and productive. The seed should be sown either by broadcasting or drilling method, and line sowing would help in weeding and intercultural operation.
- Wet System
In this method of cultivation method, the land should be ploughed thoroughly and puddled with 3cm to 5cm of standing water in the field. The ideal depth for puddling is around 10 cm in clay soils and clay-loamy soils. The land should be properly levelled after puddling to facilitates the uniform distribution of water and fertilizers. It is important to saw the paddy seeds after sprouting, or the seedlings of rice should be transplanted in the main field.
So this is all about rice farming in India. We hope you get enough information about the essential requirement for rice farming. For more information about farming and farming implements, stay tuned with us.